Centre for Ecological Apiculture

Courses / Further Education:
How to get started: join our distance course No. 19, organic topbar beekeeping for beginners and advanced learners. More info...

Help save the World with Bees. Sign up for adopting a beecolony or membership now. You support research of the Centre for ecological Apiculture. More...

Bee Therapy
How to get startet?
More Info...

More Info...

Scientific literature concerning organic / ecological  beekeeping,  social medicine / natural apitherapy and science reviews:
Apicultural Review Letters (2009-2020)
Apicultural Review Letters (Archive)
Science Review Letters (2002-2020)

Pure Bee Products
Listing of suppliers and bee products: certified partner- apiaries of the Centre for Ecological Apiculture. More Info...

honey science
organic honey
royal jelly

Articles and Press- Releases:
Organic / ecological beekeeping

Honey science

Organic / ecological top-bar beekeeping: How does it work? More...

Sign up now for organic / ecological top bar hive beekeeping  courses for beginners. More Info

Organic beekeeping basic course More Info...

How to become a partner apiary
More Info...

Unexplainable Phenomenons

Organic honey and organic beekeeping

Varroa- resistance

News from Bee-science

"nature as a standard"

Bookreviews 2019

Centre for Ecological Apiculture 2019: Bienenkiste, Warré or Top bar hive? - Take which-ever you like best, but which is the best for beginners, gardeners and backyard beekeepers? Press Release


Press- Releases: Social Medicine / Natural Apitherapy Research Centre

Bee-Therapy - How to get startet?
More Info...

Hashimoto-Thyreoiditis and Bee Therapy
Mehr Infos...

High blood pressure and Bee Therapy
Mehr Infos...

Apitherapy - books and distance courses  2019

How to produce high quality bee products? More...

Listing of suppliers and bee products: Certified partner-apiaries of the Centre for Ecological Apiculture. More...

Zentrum für soziale Medizin und natürliche Bienentherapie 2011: Rheumatoide Arthritis mit natuerlicher Bienentherapie heilen
Natuerliche Bienentherapie statt Biologika - bei Rheuma, juveniler ideopathischer Arthritis, rheumatoider Arthritis, Arthrose Api Review Letters 2011, 10, 530

Health supporting antioxidants as they can be found in natural bee produce like propolis, pollen, comb in the comb together with beebread and run honey

Starting with organic / natural beekeeping / Apitherapy instead of going on a diet

Health cure

Social Medicine / natural Apitherapy instead of Biotech - medicine (Biologicals)

Information course social medicine / natural Apitherapy

Apitherapy as social medicine

Apitherapeutic significance of comb honey, pollen, propolis, gelee royale, beevenom, beewax

Medical Wellness, Apitherapy and grade-A comb-honey 

Press- Releases:
green genetic engineering

The full catastrophe of Agro - biotechnology, genetically modified (GM) foods, genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

"Green" Biotechnology and "red" Biotechnology in the retreat

Who is releasing genetically engineered plants or animals in landscape, or who is responsible for it, like authorities who release the rules, can be taken to court for it, because he committed an act of culpable negligence

Risks of genetically 
modified crops on honeybees

Agro- biotechnology wrong in the premises?

genetic engineering and seed treatment

DeutschBeehoney and honey comb instead of sweets containing ingredients made from genetically modified crops

DeutschFacts instead of "truthiness" regarding genetically modified crops

DeutschKarma of thoughtlessness

Further press-releases

Kritische Apikulturbriefe (2009-2020)

Kritische Wissenschafts- briefe (2002-2020)



What Does It Mean True Ecological Beekeeping?

According Standards Of The Centre For Ecological Apiculture And Natural Apitherapy / Natural Apitherapy Council

Organic / ecological top bar beekeeping in the beginning of a new solar economy  - with cruelty-free beekeeping methods

"Und zwar kündigte Johannes mit dem Genuss von Waldhonig die künftige Sättigung des Volkes mit dem Honig des Felsens Christus an, wie geschrieben steht: „Und vom Fels mit Honig hat er sie gesättigt“ - St. Ambrosius / S. Ambrogio, Patron of the beekeepers, the bees and other domestic animals

"Nature does nothing in vain" Aristoteles (384 - 322 B.C.)

"Per variar natura è bella" - Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1717)

"The noble is animal friendly" Menzius (372 - 289 B.C.)

"Who is doing his business in the sense of a machine, will get a machine-heart" Konfuzius (551 - 479 B.C.)

"What is necessary above all, is, that you are able to call a spade a spade" Konfuzius (551 - 479 B.C.)


1. Harmonious Development Of Bee Colonies

In beekeeping considering the character of bees the beekeeper turns one's attention to supporting a harmonious development of bee colonies during the year and its natural way of living.

Unfortunately, this is being neglected in many apiaries - even in organic apiaries.In China apiaries sometimes have a fleet of 120 trucks for the transport of bee colonies. 

In the USA for instance apiaries with 50.000 colonies are nothing unusual. The colonies are being loaded on trucks in units of  500 colonies and are being transported with open flightholes for days and more than 4.000 km. The way of keeping bees in Europe or especially Germany is differnt, but similar regarding frame hive beekeeping (Langstroth, Dadant etc.), also among organic apiaries(!); travelling with bee colonies is also very common; 30.000 km per year is nothing unusual for such an apiary - therefore "Colony Collapse Disorder" (CCD) may also occur in Europe or Germany.

Making full use of travelling with bee colonies is very common among organic beekeepers; this is a reason why also organic bee produce can be contaminated with pesticides and antibiotics from time to time. More...

Did you know that dying out of threatened spezies costs about three thousand billion  (Brit.) or three thousand trillion (US) Euro? More...

We don't need any further kind of industrial beekeeping methods but beekeeping considering the character of bee colonies - in the age of  "Solar Economy". Frame hive beekeeping and artificial breeding methods come from past age of fossil energy, which is well known for its overexploitation. (Api Review letters, 6, No. 195).

An "industrial" beekeeping as it is also common among organic apiaries leads in connection with high insecticide treatments and genetically modified pollen to strange diseases of the honeybee worldwide. The communication system of the beecolony collapses. So called "Colony Collapse Disorder" and IBDS (Idiopathic Brood Disease Syndrome) are the results. On top of that industrial beekeeping help spreading out new parasites such as small hive beetle which is able to ruin the whole apiary.   (Apicultural Review letters, vol. 6, No. 116-121 and 10, No. 601).

Web-TV and linklist on topic Colony Collapse Disorder in most remarkable German TV Program (WDR) Quarks & Co:
Quarks & Co
Further links on homepage of Quarks & Co

Further advising / courses in organic / ecological top bar hive beekeeping 

How to get started keeping bees - simple and natural; beekeeping without magazines, frames, foundation and smoke: More info...

Organic / ecological top bar hive beekeeping - Further reading and references

New Books / Distance-Courses 2018 Ecological Beekeeping and Bee Therapy / Apitherapy More...

Centre for Ecological Apiculture 2018: Bienenkiste, Warré or Top bar hive? - Take which-ever you like best, but which is the best for beginners, gardeners and backyard beekeepers? Press release

Zentrum für wesensgemäße Bienenhaltung 2013: Die Bienenkiste - Bienen einfach und natürlich halten? Kritische Anmerkungen zur Bienenkiste Apicultural Review Letters 2013, 12, Nr. 746

Social Medicine / Natural Apitherapy Research Centre / Centre for Ecological Apiculture 2010: Manuka Health and Organic honey - which Standards are relevant for social Medicine / natural Apitherapy?Api Review Letters 9, Nr. 422

Centre for Ecological Apiculture 2019: Quality of Bee Products.  Press release

Centre for Ecological Apiculture 2019: Old Traditions in Apiculture and Viniculture Press release

Organic / ecological top bar hive beekeeping - help save the bees: Sign up for membership in Save Bee Colonies, Natural Apitherapy Council, Club of Ecological Beekeepers, adopt a colony from cruelty-free beekeeping (Bienenpatenschaft) or have a lunch with DI.Michael Thiele! More Info...

Follow the Centre for Ecological Apiculture and Save Bee Colonies (https://www.facebook.com/SaveBeecolonies) as well as Natural Apitherapy Research Centre on Facebook

2. Variety Of Flowers, No Agro-Genetic Engineering And Other Noxious Pollutants

Beehives are situated in areas with a big variety of flowers growing naturally, outside Agro-genetic engineering areas. States, who are mass producers of genetically modified seeds now have almost no possibility to sell organic honey and bee products according standards of the Centre for Ecological Apiculture (apitherapeutical effective products) - especially if it is an out-of-control process and genetically modified seeds such as rape, soy and maize have run wild, as it happened now in nearly every famous honey-export country of the world. This apply also to areas contaminated with other pollutants like radioactivity or noxious pesticides in fruit farming regions.

Further reading:

Centre for ecological Apiculture 2019: Cancer by Glyphosate and genetically modified crops

GMO's in vegan hamburgers. Api Review letters 2019, 18, No. 1177

New GMOs with side-effects. CrisprCas9. Api Review letters 2018, 17, Nr. 1128

New Insekticides such as Neonicotinoide are going to kill not only quenn bees. Api Review letters 2016, 15, Nr. 1028

Some scientists, especially those from Monsanto, Nestlé & Co. are superstitious according to recent scientific research. Api Review Letters 2013, 12, Nr. 822

Nature is always being right - Die Natur hat immer recht. Api Review Letters 2012, 11, Nr. 677

Gratitude to the Universe - Dankbarkeit gegenüber dem Universum. Api Review Letters 2012, 11, Nr. 650

Dangerous Toxins From Genetically Modified Plants Found in Women and Foetuses
Links to allergies, auto-immune disease, and other disorders Natural Bt is dangerous; Bt cotton linked to human allergies, animal deaths; Living pesticide factories inside us? Science Review Letters 2011, Vol.10, No. 400

The full story of an until now legal poison: Roundup (glyphosate) - Monsanto's Roundup Triggers Over 40 Plant Diseases and Endangers Human and Animal Health. Alzheimer, Parkinson, Cancer Science Review Letters 2011, Vol.10, No. 381

Toxic food - not only for cows, sheeps and honeybees - made by Monsanto, Bayer, BASF & Co Api Review Letters 2009, Vol.8, No. 351

The five main GM foods are soy, corn, cotton, canola, and sugar beets. Products made of these GM foods such as sugar, high fructose syrup, lecithin are more toxic than expected. Even FDA and EFSA gave wrong testimonials over years; they failed together with many leading politicians Science Review Letters 2009, Vol. 8, No. 309

GM-crop-Disaster: The US government payments to farmers are up by $3 to $5 billion annually due to GM crops.  growers have only been kept afloat by the huge jump in subsidies. genetic pollution caused by today’s GMOs could theoretically outlast the effects of global warming and nuclear waste. Genetically modified sugar beets. Even small amounts of contaminants can be quite dangerous. A brand killed about 100 Americans and caused 5,000-10,000 to become sick or permanently disabled. Science Review Letters 2008, Vol. 7, No. 202

Biosafety?Unscientific assumptions the basis of approvals? - blatant propaganda exercise stands validated as exemplary science - Toxic gm foods could have been approved. Science Review Letters 2007, Vol. 6, No. 182

Documentation of US-resistance against genetically modified (GM) foods, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and review of new scientific research on dangerous and life threatening side effects of modern Biotechnology in: Science Review Letters (2007, Vol. 6, No.156-159)

Press releases: 
Genetically modified (GM) foods are unhealthy and unsafe -  Evidence Links GM Foods to Allergies

Genetically Modified Seeds Cause More Harm Than Good I-VI

Everybody, who contaminate or destroy landscape nearly irreversible, commit an offence. This apply to oil-companies, who let their ships sink near the coasts, as well as for those who are responsible for releasing genetically modified products. We don't need to discuss if it is a punishable offence, but if it is duly punished, so that our landscape can be used also by generations in future.  No expert is talking about coexistence and safety distances, only layman like Annette Schavan, Princess Anne (the sister of Eco-Prince Charles). More...

"Green" and "red" Biotechnology in the retreat
Agrobiotechnology wrong 
in the premises?

Severe side effects of agro-genetic engineering on honeybees and other beneficial insects. See Centre for Food Safety and grassroot movement "civil courage" in Germany:

Risks of genetically
modified crops on honeybees

3. Swarming Impulse Is Basis For Breeding - No Artificial Queen Breeding

Did you know that most beekeepers, also organic beekeepers (according EU-organic rule, USDA organic program, standards of organic associations) let their queens grow up from worker larvae ("grafting") although it is senseless from the point of view of the spirit of the beecolony, for which it is selfevident that a queen is only a good queen which has grown up from the beginning in a special round queen cell with special queen fodder (gelee royale)? More...

4. No Instrumental Insemination Or Other Artificial Breeding Methods, No Wing Clipping Of The Queen Bee

Did you know that in many cases beekeepers, also from certified organic apiaries (according EU-organic rule, USDA organic program, standards of organic associations) do not let the queens fly out to their traditional nuptial flight, but carry out artificial insemination of the queen instead? To prevent the queen flying out they clip the wings of the queen. Some beekeepers really think to be on the path of nature by fixing the queen in a special way on the instrument. 

5. Quality of Beeproduce: No Ultra Filtration, No Treatment With Heat During Honey Harvest And Filling

Since August 2003 ultra filtration is allowed also in the EU. What does it mean? With the help of this technique it is legal to filter out typical honey compounds - a technique which leads to honey falsification very easily. According standards of the Centre for Ecological Apiculture neither this technique nor heat treatment during harvest and filling is allowed.

Did you know that comb-honey is a produce to which neither mechanical (extraction, stirring procedure) nor heat treatment ("melting") has occurred and which consequently is an product of especially high quality?

Thus there is an increase in popularity regarding comb honey and organic honey comb. But always again checking turns out that in parts 90 percent of the honey comb / organic comb honey is being criticized. For the most part it is imported honey from Turkey for instance, which contains brood and foundation (sometimes containing paraffin and DEET) or is contaminated with antibiotics and beerepellents. On top of that, in many cases you find artificial honey comb, for instance Cassettes made of wood or plastic ("Bee-O-Pac-System" , "Ross-Rounds", "Hogg's-Cassettes", "Romanov"). More ...

Did you know, that not only cars, electronic products, clothing, dried fruits such as sultanines,  apricots, haszelnuts, pistacias, olives, are being imported from Turkey by europien, american und asian companies such as VW, Ford, Toyota, MAN, Daimler AG, Fiat, Renault, Robert Bosch GmbH, Sony, Hugo Boss, Maas, Brax, Rapunzel (Bionella), Alnatura, DM, Tegut/Migros, Ferrero (Nutella, Hanuta, Duplo), Aldi, Lidl & Co. etc. ,  but also honey and honey comb?

Turkish Honey, enjoyd by Sultans, can be expensive, but is sometimes contaminated with poison from special plants. That is not dangerous for bees but for human beings; they may cause halucinations und madness; these results can be observed at some  türkish sultans in history and also at turkish Presidents nowadays.

Not only milk powder and glycerine (used for cough syrup or mixtures) from China is poisoned, but also bee products such as propolis, royal jelly, perga, beeswax, honey, who are sometimes being imported from third countries. More than 500 People were already killed. (see also chapter 9) 

But also honey comb / organic honey comb from Germany is concerned, if it is not produced according standards of the Centre for Ecological Apiculture. According EU-Rules even artificial foundation in  honey comb / organic honey comb is allowed.

More information and  sources of supply for pure honey comb with natural crystallisation (not heated), pure propolis and pure beeswax from naturally built combs see listing of suppliers and bee produce

Further reading and references: 

Social Medicine / Natural Apitherapy Research Center / Centre for ecological Apiculture 2010: Manuka Health and Organic Honey - which standards are relevant for social medicine / natural apitherapy?Api Review Letters 9, Nr. 422

More Informationen regarding Honey, Comb in the comb, Beeswax and quality-standards for Apitherapy: Centre for ecological Apiculture 2019: Quality of bee produce. Pressrelease

6. Beehive Made Of Natural Materials, No Artificial Feeding With Sugar, Syrup, Soy Meal, Milkpowder Or Functional Food

either of straw or of wood or clay. 

Not allowed
according standards 
of the Centre for Ecological
Apiculture are:
Beehive, frames, foundations 
and combs made of plastic,
wired frames,
artificially created beewax foundation,
artificial wax foundation,
fibrocement beehive (cement and asbestos),
polypropylene beehive with ultraviolet-resistant stabilizers,
polystyrene, aluminium
sheets, facing of aluminium on the interior (to prevent bees from chewing soft types of plastic), 
rotating frame beehive,
"Flow Hive",
Beehive, which divide the colony in fragments (magazines)

No artificial feeding with sugar (from Roundup ready sugar beets), syrup (from genetically modified corn or wheat), soy meal, milkpowder or functional food, no "clearing up"

Did you know that most animals such as cows, pigs, hens etc are being fed with Roundup ready soy? As Roundup ready soy contains glyphosate, it is supposed to be one of the most toxic food for human beings and animals. The same apply to Roundup ready sugar beets. Beekeepers are being using it for feeding their bees.

Did you know that most beekeepers take away the complete honey reserves of the bee colonies - also the honey from the border of the combs in the brood areas? They call it the "clearing up"!

Did you know that feeding bees with sugar means feeding with plastik? More...

In contrast to industrial beekeeping and organic beekeeping, feeding sugarmixtures and syrup in apiaries certified by the Centre for Ecological Apiculture, is not allowed. There is left enough honey in the bee colonies for wintertime.

sugarmixtures and syrup used by the majority of beekeepers as winter fodder for bee colonies, contain Glycosesyrupe, which is made from genetically modified raw materials. You can find it in all sweets, marzipan inclusive and even in honey. 

By the way, many beekeepers - also those from organic apiaries - are feeding not only sugar syrup but also soymeal and milkpowder and functional food with artificially added vitamins, proteins, iron and so on. Residuals of sugarfeeding as well as residuals of soymeal and milkpowder can be found in bee produce (honey, beesbread, propolis); it doesn't make any difference if they are contaminated with melamin or genetically engineered ingredients or not. [3][4]

Thus beekeepers - although fighting against genetic engineering - are main supporters of genetic engineering because they use inexpensive sugar syrup and soymeal! On top of that they weaken their colonies by using artificial fodder. More...

On top of that you can find already genetically modified sugar beets. More...

Further reading and references: see print version


7. Bees In Top Bar Hives In The Centre for Ecological Apiculture Drawing Combs Out Naturally, No Artificial Foundation, No Complete Artificial Honeycomb Made Of Contaminated Beeswax Or Plastic Foundation / Combs, No Artificial Wax, No Pressing-Method

The research programme of the Centre for Ecological Apiculture includes natural living conditions for honeybees in simple hives. Did you know that the Centre for Ecological Beekeeping is the only Institution in Germany where bees are being kept solely in top bar hives and allowed to draw out their combs themselves without frames, in contrast to bees from beekeepers who need to get along with plastic combs ("Flow Hive") in plastic beehives, wood frames, artificial foundation or complete honeycombs made of contaminated beeswax and wire or even need to live in so called "skyscaperhives" together with up to six (!) queens per colony - which is practiced in anti-ecological technique of so called "Pressing-method"? (Api review letters 2006, 5, 70)

Therefore our Standards are eligible to produce products for natural cosmetics, alternative treatment, holistic healing, herbal therapies and natural Apitherapy such as raw honey, honey comb, honey comb with beesbread, propolis, royal jelly as well as beeswax. listing of suppliers and  bee produce

Did you know that the Centre for Ecological Beekeeping is the only Institution worldwide who offers a Training for becoming a certified apiary of centre for ecological Apiculture?How does it work? 

More Informationen regarding Beeswax and quality-standards for Apitherapy: Quality of bee produce. Pressrelease

8. Medicine Against Diseases Made Of Compounds That Are Natural Ingredients Of Honey

Beekeepers of the Centre for Ecological Apiculture normally don't need medicine against Varroa mites. How does it work? Hobbyists and sideliners should start with distance course No. 19 ecological beekeeping in top-bar-hives for beginners

Professional beekeepers and experienced organic beekeepers may join: Training and study courses in the Centre for Ecological Apiculture

Organic / ecological beekeeping supplies: It is also possible to purchase a beehive such as a top bar hive constructed according standards of the Centre for Ecological Apiculture - including top bars. You need to inquire if available (Tel. 0049 5652 917899).

9. Bees know how it works

Everybody is able to support a "long lasting fertility in beekeeping" in contrast to success in artificial beekeeping or mainstream organic beekeeping for a short time: become a Member or support honeybees kept naturally without cruelty to animals! More Info

Did you know that food (meat from pork, poultry, rabbit) and even honey imported from China is sometimes so contaminated with ecologically harmful chemicals and animal medicine like Chloramphenicol (destroys bone marrow of children), that the EU needs to stop the import of animal produce, especially honey from time to time?

Did you know that even mainstream organic honey is being heated before filling?

According to new scientific research, agriculture and environment contaminate beeswax only little. The apiary itself is the source for contamination. One needs to attach the greatest importance to varroa exterminators, and waxmoth exterminator Paradichlorbenzol (PDCB). A heightened Coumaphos- concentration in wax can be even toxic to queens. Bad side effects on brood and health of bees can't be excluded also by lower wax concentrations. The accumulation of Varroazides in combwax leads to a kind of „long-term-therapy" of Varroa, which can cause resistances.

For the time being there is no uncontaminated beewax on the European market. Such beewax needs to be imported from Africa - Only in the Centre for Ecological Apiculture and its certified member apiaries uncontaminated beewax is being produced, as these apiaries work completely without foundations and the beewax is harvested from combs drawn out naturally by the bees. 

Further Reading and References: Centre for Social Medicine and Natural Apitherapy

More Informationen regarding Beeswax without residuals and quality-standards for Apitherapy: Quality of bee produce. Pressrelease

10. On The Character Of Bees, Spiritual Beekeeping

Did you know that the founder of the Waldorfschool and bio-dynamic agriculture (Rudolf Steiner/Phd) considered Apiculture to be so important that he started 1923 lectures "on the character of bees"? For him it was a matter of "long lasting fertility in beekeeping" in contrast to success in artificial beekeeping for a short time. As generally in agriculture, also here apply that it is something different if one gives free play to nature and only bring it on correct tracks or if one carry something artificially in this matter. You can find interesting comparisons in these lectures, for instance worker bees and bloodcells, drones and nerve cells, bees and wasps (bees as in ancient times breeded wasps); he tells us about the importance of insects in nature (more important than pollination is the distribution of natural formic acid); about swarming, which is a crucial need of the bees (linked to bee poison and three infinitesimal eyes on the forehead, about which science didn't find out the meaning until now - but it's not surprisingly as for the time being only 1 % of the bee's behavioral repertoire has been dicovered and documented by scientists)

Everybody should be very much interested in beekeeping, "because more than one thinks human life depends on beekeeping." (More info in distance course No.19 and Centre for natural Apitherapy)

11. Info Beehive Products Certified According the Standards Of The Centre For Ecological Apiculture. How To Become A Certified Beekeeper?

Certification according the EU organic rule, USDA organic program or standards of other organic and biodynamic beekeeping associations who support frame hive beekeeping, is not sufficient to be in conformity with standards of the Centre for Ecological Apiculture!

For grade A beehive products certification we offer a special Training. 

Precondition is a Save  Bee Colonies | Natural Apitherapy Council membership.

Beekeepers of the
Centre for Ecological Apiculture

DI. Michael Thiele expert in beekeeping considering the character of bees, natural apitherapy, biodynamical agriculture, hazards of agro-genetic engineering and nature conservation

Centre for Ecological Apiculture / Zentrum fuer wesensgemaesse Bienenhaltung
z.Hd. DI. Michael Thiele
Franzrasen 2, D-37242 Bad Sooden/Germany

Tel: +49 (0) 5652 917899
Fax: +49 (0) 32223740527

Expertise, practical courses, training, distance courses:

Distance courses, practical crash-courses organic and beefriendly top bar hive beekeeping, training for beginners and advanced learners

Beeproduce certified according standards of the Centre for Ecological Apiculture

Join now our campaign supporting honeybees or become a member and  support the Centre for Ecological Apiculture!

Follow us in social Networks:


12. The Advantage Of Top Bar Hive Beekeeping According Standards Of The Centre For Ecological Apiculture Natural Apitherapy Council

Why do we need a complicated technique? Top bar hive beekeeping - according standards of the Centre for Ecological Apiculture - is the most recommended beekeeping method.

In Api Reviev Letters again and again it is reported about mainstream organic / natural beekeeping and if these kind of beekeepers see the point regarding beekeeping considering the character
of bees. 

A so called "organic" or "natural" beekeeper tells for instance: „organic beekeeping is resting on three pillars, who stand together in an inner connection". One pillar is: „it is good practice in beekeeping to consider the Broodnest as a oneness". You may ask, how many follies need to be quartered in a head until this one may find a place? Neither non-organic nor organic / natural beekeepers consider the broodnest to be a oneness. It’s a pity but it’s a fact. The usage of wired frames, foundation wax, smoke is generally allowed - also by Demeter and Soil Association. What does it mean? Wired pieces of wood together with artificially moulded wax foundations is given to the colony. [4]

Further Info And Literature Regarding Simple Hives (Difference Bienenkiste And Topbar hive)

Zentrum für wesensgemäße Bienenhaltung 2013: Die Bienenkiste - Bienen einfach und natürlich halten? Kritische Anmerkungen zur Bienenkiste. Apicultural Review letters 2013, 12, Nr.746

Bienenkiste or Tbh?

Further reading and references for organic beekeeping see print version

New Books / Distance-Courses 2019 Ecological Beekeeping and Bee Therapy / Apitherapy More...


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Last update:2020/02/26